One criticism of bicameral systems with two elected chambers is that the upper and lower houses may simply mirror one another. The traditional justification of bicameralism is that an upper chamber acts as a house of review. This can minimise arbitrariness and injustice in governmental action. Definitions of law often raise the question of the extent to which law incorporates morality. John Austin’s utilitarian answer was that law is “commands, backed by threat of sanctions, from a sovereign, to whom people have a habit of obedience”.
- Kant was also criticised by Friedrich Nietzsche, who rejected the principle of equality, and believed that law emanates from the will to power, and cannot be labeled as “moral” or “immoral”.
- A judiciary is a number of judges mediating disputes to determine outcome.
- An example of a basic case of most property law is Armory v Delamirie .
- A judiciary is theoretically bound by